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Mentoring for new nurses

Health Factors: Access to Care
Decision Makers: Educators State Government Healthcare Professionals & Advocates
Evidence Rating: Some Evidence
Population Reach: 100% of WI's population
Impact on Disparities: No impact on disparities likely

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Description

Mentoring programs pair new nurses with more experienced nurses who act as a resource and provide support as the new nurse establishes him or herself professionally. Mentors may come from the same unit as their mentee or from a different unit. Preceptors sometimes function as mentors, but usually also have a supervisory role. Mentors and preceptors are often incorporated into nurse residency programs. Mentors may also help transition experienced nurses into new roles as nursing faculty (Specht 2013) or as members of units that serve a patient pool or type of medicine new to the nurse (Mann-Salinas 2014).

Expected Beneficial Outcomes

Increased nurse retention
Increased job satisfaction
Increased job skills

Evidence of Effectiveness

There is some evidence that mentoring programs increase retention and job satisfaction among new nurses. However, additional evidence is needed to confirm effects (Zhang 2016).

Mentoring programs may increase nursing skills, reduce stress and anxiety levels (Zhang 2016, Edwards 2015), and improve confidence, decision-making, self-efficacy, and the professional practice environment (Zhang 2016). Researchers suggest that mentorship by preceptors for newly licensed nurses last a minimum of six months (Anderson 2012) and that mentors and preceptors receive appropriate mentor training  (Zhang 2016, Rebholz 2015, Rush 2013).

Mentorship may increase retention among experienced nurses who transition to new work environments, including new types of units (Mann-Salinas 2014) and faculty roles (Specht 2013). Experienced nurses with mentors report greater levels of job satisfaction (Mann-Salinas 2014) and new nursing faculty with mentors report lower levels of role conflict and role ambiguity (Specht 2013) than peers who transition without mentors. Serving as a mentor may also increase retention rates among experienced nurses (Baggot 2005).

By reducing turnover rates, mentoring programs can reduce costs for health care organizations (Zhang 2016).

Implementation

United States

A variety of health care organizations and partners support and implement nurse mentoring programs. The Organization of Nurse Executives of New Jersey’s (ONE NJ’s) program, for example, matched more than 75 mentor/mentee pairs from 2011-2014 (Rich 2015, ONE NJ). Vermont Nurses in Partnership’s (VNIP) Clinical Transition Framework (CFT) supports new graduates and experienced nurses transitioning to new practice environments (VNIP).

Wisconsin

Marquette University College of Nursing’s Wisconsin Nurse Residency Program, a one year nurse residency program in place since 2004, provides preceptors with training to serve as mentors (Marquette-WNPR, AHRQ HCIE-Bratt).

Citations - Description

Mann-Salinas 2014* - Mann-Salinas E, Hayes E, Robbins J, et al. A systematic review of the literature to support an evidence-based Precepting Program. Burns. 2014;40(3):374–387. Accessed on June 20, 2016
Specht 2013* - Specht JA. Mentoring relationships and the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty. Journal of Professional Nursing. 2013;29(5):e25–e31. Accessed on June 20, 2016

Citations - Evidence

Anderson 2012* - Anderson G, Hair C, Todero C. Nurse residency programs: An evidence-based review of theory, process, and outcomes. Journal of Professional Nursing. 2012;28(4):203-12. Accessed on June 24, 2016
Baggot 2005* - Baggot DM, Hensinger B, Parry J, Valdes MS, Zaim S. The new hire/preceptor experience: Cost-benefit analysis of one retention strategy. Journal of Nursing Administration. 2005;35(3):138-45. Accessed on November 24, 2015
Edwards 2015* - Edwards D, Hawker C, Carrier J, Rees C. A systematic review of the effectiveness of strategies and interventions to improve the transition from student to newly qualified nurse. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2015;52(7):1254–1268. Accessed on June 20, 2016
Mann-Salinas 2014* - Mann-Salinas E, Hayes E, Robbins J, et al. A systematic review of the literature to support an evidence-based Precepting Program. Burns. 2014;40(3):374–387. Accessed on June 20, 2016
Rebholz 2015* - Rebholz M, Baumgartner LM. Attributes and qualifications of successful rural nurse preceptors: Preceptors's perspectives. Qualitative Report. 2015;20(2):93-119. Accessed on June 21, 2016
Rush 2013* - Rush KL, Adamack M, Gordon J, Lilly M, Janke R. Best practices of formal new graduate nurse transition programs: An integrative review. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2013;50(3):345–356. Accessed on June 20, 2016
Specht 2013* - Specht JA. Mentoring relationships and the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty. Journal of Professional Nursing. 2013;29(5):e25–e31. Accessed on June 20, 2016
Zhang 2016* - Zhang Y, Qian Y, Wu J, Wen F, Zhang Y. The effectiveness and implementation of mentoring program for newly graduated nurses: A systematic review. Nurse Education Today. 2016;37:136–144. Accessed on June 20, 2016

Citations - Implementation

AHRQ HCIE-Bratt - Bratt MM. Residency program for first-year nurses eases entry into profession, producing well-above average retention rates. Rockville: AHRQ Health Care Innovations Exchange. Accessed on June 24, 2016
Marquette-WNPR - Marquette University. College of Nursing. Wisconsin Nurse Residency Program (WNPR). Accessed on June 20, 2016
ONE NJ - Organization of Nurse Executives of New Jersey (ONE NJ). Accessed on June 20, 2016
Rich 2015* - Rich M, Kempin B, Loughlin MJ, et al. Developing leadership talent: A statewide nurse leader mentorship program. Journal of Nursing Administration. 2015;45(2):63–66. Accessed on June 20, 2016
VNIP - Vermont Nurses in Partnership. Clinical Transition Framework (CTF). Accessed on June 20, 2016

Page Last Updated

June 21, 2016

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