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Mass media campaigns against tobacco use

Health Factors: Tobacco Use
Decision Makers: Local Government State Government Grantmakers Nonprofit Leaders Public Health Professionals & Advocates
Evidence Rating: Scientifically Supported
Population Reach: 20-49% of WI's population
Impact on Disparities: No impact on disparities likely

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Description

Mass media campaigns use television, print, digital or social media, radio broadcasts, or other displays to share messages with large audiences (Cochrane-Carson-Chahhoud 2017). Tobacco-specific campaigns educate current and potential tobacco users about the dangers of tobacco and often include graphic portals or emotional messages to influence attitudes and beliefs about tobacco use (CG-Tobacco use).

Expected Beneficial Outcomes

Reduced youth smoking
Reduced number of tobacco users
Increased quit rates
Reduced tobacco consumption
Increased use of cessation treatment

Evidence of Effectiveness

There is strong evidence that mass media campaigns reduce the number of tobacco users, increase quit rates (CG-Tobacco use), and reduce youth initiation and smoking (Cochrane-Bala 2017, CG-Tobacco use, AHA-Mozaffarian 2012). Evidence is strongest for high intensity, well-funded television campaigns (CG-Tobacco use) and campaigns that are part of a comprehensive tobacco control program (Cochrane-Bala 2017, AHA-Mozaffarian 2012).

Mass media campaigns reduce tobacco use among adults and youth (CG-Tobacco use, Durkin 2012, Murphy-Hoefer 2018), and reduce or delay tobacco use initiation among young people (CG-Tobacco use). Such campaigns can also reduce tobacco consumption, increase quit rates (Cochrane-Bala 2017, Durkin 2012), and increase use of cessation services (CG-Tobacco use). Campaigns may be more effective for light smokers than heavy smokers (Cochrane-Secker-Walker 2002).

Campaigns with messages that include quitline information increase quitline use (CG-Tobacco use). Such campaigns have been shown to increase calls to quitlines in communities with majority black populations (Cochrane-Mosdol 2017). State-sponsored campaigns can increase quitline registrations and the use of internet-based cessation interventions (Duke 2014).

Intense campaigns that reach many current and potential tobacco users typically yield stronger effects than less intense campaigns (CG-Tobacco use, Durkin 2012). Research from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests that campaigns must reach 75% to 85% of their target audience and last at least 18 to 24 months to affect behavior (AHA-Mozaffarian 2012). Effects on quit attempts may fade shortly after a campaign ends (Durkin 2012). Emotional messages such as personal testimonials with surprising narratives, intense images, and sounds (Das 2016) or graphic portrayals of negative health consequences appear more effective than other approaches (CG-Tobacco use, Durkin 2012, AHA-Mozaffarian 2012).

Overall, effective youth campaigns generally last more than three years, are based on target audience research, and include school-based lessons, media spots, and multiple media methods (e.g., newspapers, radio, television). Additional evidence is needed about the use of social media and novel forms of technology for tobacco prevention campaigns for youth (Cochrane-Carson-Chahhoud 2017). Youth appear more responsive to messages about tobacco industry manipulation than adults (Wilson 2012). Studies of The Real Cost campaign suggest that youth-targeted campaigns can alter population-level perceptions of tobacco-related harms (Duke 2018) as well as reduce smoking initiation by youth (CDC MMWR-Farrelly 2017). Campaigns to prevent youth uptake may require less reach than campaigns to promote quitting to yield effects (Durkin 2012).

Some campaigns appear more likely to yield stronger effects among low income individuals than higher income individuals (CG-Tobacco use). Other campaigns, often those with limited reach (Durkin 2012), increase quit rates most among high income individuals (Durkin 2012, Lorenc 2013). However, both messages targeted to disadvantaged populations and those intended for broader audiences have demonstrated effects among disadvantaged populations (CG-Tobacco use, Guillaumier 2012). Campaign effects may also vary by race and ethnicity (Das 2016).

Mass media campaigns included in comprehensive tobacco control programs appear to reduce smoking prevalence (Cochrane-Bala 2017).

Mass media campaigns save more in averted health care costs than they cost to implement; media expenditures for such campaigns have ranged from 25 cents to $3.35 per capita per year (Cochrane-Bala 2017). Campaigns to increase quitline use are estimated to cost about $260 per additional call made to the quitline (CG-Tobacco use).

Implementation

United States

Mass media campaigns against tobacco use can be implemented on the national, state, and local levels. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Tips From Former Smokers includes stories from real people living with tobacco-related diseases and disabilities; it features tips, tools, and connections to quitlines to support quitting (CDC-Tips). The Real Cost, from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is a youth-oriented campaign with materials focused on the cosmetic effects of tobacco, the loss of control caused by addiction, and the dangerous mix of toxic chemicals in tobacco products (US FDA-Real Cost). The Truth campaign uses its website, social media platforms, and text messages to share information on the dangers of tobacco and methods to prevent youth use (Truth).

The Massachusetts Tobacco Cessation and Prevention Program (MTCP) is an example of a state-based effort that uses a comprehensive approach to reduce tobacco and nicotine use which includes social media (MTCP). The New York City Department of Health launched an anti-smoking campaign in March 2018 which runs on television, subways, social media, daily newspapers, and the Staten Island Ferry (NYC Health-Smoking number).

Wisconsin

National mass media campaigns have been used in Wisconsin. The US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) Every Try Counts campaign places ads that encourage smokers to keep trying to quit specifically in gas stations and convenience stores. Milwaukee is among 35 markets which has print, digital, billboard, and radio ads from this campaign (PPI-Milwaukee, Smokefree.gov-Every Try Counts).

Implementation Resources

ACS-Stop smoking campaigns - American Cancer Society (ACS). Global dialogue for effective stop smoking campaigns. Accessed on September 20, 2018
CDC-MCRC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Media campaign resource center (MCRC). Accessed on September 20, 2018
CDC-Tips - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Tips From Former Smokers. Accessed on September 25, 2018
CPHSS TCLC-Brossart 2014 - Brossart L, Moreland-Russell S, Walsh H, et al. Policy strategies: A tobacco control guide. St. Louis: Center for Public Health Systems Science (CPHSS), George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University, Tobacco Control Legal Consortium (TCLC); 2014. Accessed on September 20, 2018
HealthPartners-CHA - HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research. Community health advisor (CHA): Resource for information on the benefits of evidence-based policies and programs: Helping communities understand, analyze, and model costs. Accessed on September 20, 2018
Truth Initiative-Tobacco free - Truth Initiative. Inspiring tobacco-free lives through education, research, community activism, and engagement. Accessed on September 20, 2018

Citations - Description

CG-Tobacco use - The Guide to Community Preventive Services (The Community Guide). Tobacco. Accessed on September 20, 2018
Cochrane-Carson-Chahhoud 2017* - Carson-Chahhoud KV, Ameer F, Sayehmiri K, et al. Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2017;(6):CD001006. Accessed on September 20, 2018

Citations - Evidence

AHA-Mozaffarian 2012 - Mozaffarian D, Afshin A, Benowitz NL, et al. Population approaches to improve diet, physical activity, and smoking habits: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association (AHA). Circulation. 2012;126(12):1514–63. Accessed on September 26, 2018
CDC MMWR-Farrelly 2017 - Farrelly MC, Duke JC, Nonnemaker J, et al. Association between The Real Cost media campaign and smoking initiation among youths - United States, 2014-2016. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2017;66(02):47-50. Accessed on September 26, 2018
CG-Tobacco use - The Guide to Community Preventive Services (The Community Guide). Tobacco. Accessed on September 20, 2018
Cochrane-Bala 2017* - Bala MM, Strzeszynski L, Topor-Madry R. Mass media interventions for smoking cessation in adults. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews. 2017;(11):CD004704. Accessed on September 20, 2018
Cochrane-Carson-Chahhoud 2017* - Carson-Chahhoud KV, Ameer F, Sayehmiri K, et al. Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2017;(6):CD001006. Accessed on September 20, 2018
Cochrane-Mosdol 2017* - Mosdøl A, Lida IB, Straumann Gyri H, Vist Gunn E. Targeted mass media interventions promoting healthy behaviours to reduce risk of non-communicable diseases in adult, ethnic minorities. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2017;(2). Accessed on September 26, 2018
Cochrane-Secker-Walker 2002* - Secker-Walker R, Gnich W, Platt S, Lancaster T. Community interventions for reducing smoking among adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2002;(2):CD001745. Accessed on September 20, 2018
Das 2016* - Das JK, Salam RA, Arshad A, Finkelstein Y, Bhutta ZA. Interventions for adolescent substance abuse: An overview of systematic reviews. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2016;59(4):S61-S75. Accessed on September 26, 2018
Duke 2014 - Duke JC, Mann N, Davis KC, MacMonegle A, Allen J, Porter L. The impact of a state-sponsored mass media campaign on use of telephone quitline and web-based cessation services. Preventing Chronic Disease. 2014;11. Accessed on September 26, 2018
Duke 2018* - Duke JC, Farrelly MC, Alexander TN, et al. Effect of a national tobacco public education campaign on youth’s risk perceptions and beliefs about smoking. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2018;32(5):1248-1256. Accessed on September 26, 2018
Durkin 2012 - Durkin S, Brennan E, Wakefield M. Mass media campaigns to promote smoking cessation among adults: An integrative review. Tobacco Control. 2012;21(2):127–38. Accessed on September 20, 2018
Guillaumier 2012* - Guillaumier A, Bonevski B, Paul C. Anti-tobacco mass media and socially disadvantaged groups: A systematic and methodological review. Drug and Alcohol Review. 2012;31(5):698–708. Accessed on September 20, 2018
Lorenc 2013* - Lorenc T, Petticrew M, Welch V, Tugwell P. What types of interventions generate inequalities? Evidence from systematic reviews. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2013;67(2):190-3. Accessed on September 20, 2018
Murphy-Hoefer 2018 - Murphy-Hoefer R, Davis KC, Beistle D, et al. Impact of the Tips From Former Smokers campaign on population-level smoking cessation, 2012-2015. Preventing Chronic Disease. 2018;15. Accessed on September 26, 2018
Wilson 2012 - Wilson LM, Avila Tang E, Chander G, et al. Impact of tobacco control interventions on smoking initiation, cessation, and prevalence: A systematic review. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2012;2012(961724):1-36. Accessed on September 20, 2018

Citations - Implementation

CDC-Tips - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Tips From Former Smokers. Accessed on September 25, 2018
MTCP - Massachusetts Tobacco Cessation and Prevention Program (MTCP). Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Accessed on September 25, 2018
NYC Health-Smoking number - NYC Health. Health department launches new anti-smoking media campaign featuring Commissioner Bassett and her quit smoking “number.” City of New York. 2018. Accessed on September 25, 2018
PPI-Milwaukee - Public Policy Institute (PPI). Community Advocates. New FDA campaign promotes multiple smoking quit attempts to stop smoking at the point of sale. Milwaukee, Wisconsin; 2017. Accessed on September 25, 2018
Smokefree.gov-Every Try Counts - US Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS). Smokefree.gov. Every Try Counts. Accessed on September 25, 2018
Truth - Truth Initiative. Truth: Inspiring tobacco-free lives through education, research, community activism, and engagement. Accessed on September 25, 2018
US FDA-Real Cost - US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). Center for Tobacco Products. The Real Cost. Accessed on September 25, 2018

Page Last Updated

September 27, 2018

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