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Tobacco quitlines

Health Factors: Tobacco Use
Decision Makers: State Government
Evidence Rating: Scientifically Supported
Population Reach: 20-49% of WI's population
Impact on Disparities: No impact on disparities likely

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Description

Quitlines provide behavioral counseling to tobacco users who want to quit. Cessation specialists schedule follow-up calls after the specialist or tobacco user makes initial contact using a proactive quitline; reactive quitlines rely solely on tobacco users to make future contact. Some quitlines provide additional interventions such as mailed materials, web-based support, text messaging, or tobacco cessation medications (CG-Tobacco use). Many quitlines offer services in multiple languages (NAQC-US)

Expected Beneficial Outcomes

Increased quit rates

Evidence of Effectiveness

There is strong evidence that proactive quitlines increase tobacco cessation (CG-Tobacco use, West 2015, Cochrane-Stead 2013a, Klesges 2015, AHA-Mozaffarian 2012, Mottillo 2009). State- (CG-Tobacco use) and community-sponsored quitlines have demonstrated effects on cessation (AHA-Mozaffarian 2012).

Proactive counseling is more effective than reactive counseling and three or more counseling sessions appear more effective than fewer sessions (Cochrane-Stead 2013a). Combining quitlines with other interventions such as mass communication campaigns and efforts to encourage health care providers to refer patients to quitlines increases quitline use and tobacco cessation (CG-Tobacco use). Combining quitlines with technology-based efforts (e.g., internet- or cell phone-based services) (Danielsson 2014) and providing counseling in multiple languages (Cummins 2015) can also support cessation.

Providing tobacco cessation medication such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) with quitline services increases quit rates (CG-Tobacco use, Smith 2013) and call volume (CG-Tobacco use). Telephone counseling with NRT increases smoking quit rates more than medication alone (Cochrane-Stead 2015). Quitlines combined with NRT have been shown to increase quit rates for active military personnel, veterans, and their dependents (Klesges 2015), and smokers with low incomes (Bernstein 2016). Telephone counseling may also increase smokeless tobacco cessation (Cochrane-Ebbert 2015).

Quitlines are considered cost effective (CG-Tobacco use).

Implementation

United States

All fifty states have quitlines. Most quitlines proactively call and counsel clients multiple times and offer free tobacco cessation medication (NAQC-Quitline facts). 

Wisconsin

Wisconsin’s quitline offers single-session telephone counseling, free cessation medication in the form of patches, lozenges, or gum, and web-based services. Clients may get multiple counseling sessions if they initiate calls themselves (NAQC-Wisconsin, UW-CTRI WTQL).

Implementation Resources

CDC-Quitlines 2004 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Telephone quitlines: A resource for development, implementation, and evaluation. Atlanta: Office on Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP); 2004. Accessed on May 15, 2017
NAQC-Quitline - North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). Promoting evidence based quitline services across diverse communities in North America. Accessed on May 15, 2017
NAQC-US - North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). Promoting evidence based quitline services across diverse communities in North America. United States profiles. Accessed on May 25, 2017
Smokefree.gov-Quitline - US Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS). Smokefree.gov. Speak to an expert. Accessed on May 30, 2017

Citations - Description

CG-Tobacco use - The Guide to Community Preventive Services (The Community Guide). Tobacco. Accessed on May 15, 2017
NAQC-US - North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). Promoting evidence based quitline services across diverse communities in North America. United States profiles. Accessed on May 25, 2017

Citations - Evidence

AHA-Mozaffarian 2012 - Mozaffarian D, Afshin A, Benowitz NL, et al. Population approaches to improve diet, physical activity, and smoking habits: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association (AHA). Circulation. 2012;126(12):1514–63. Accessed on May 15, 2017
Bernstein 2016* - Bernstein SL, Weiss J-M, Toll B, Zbikowski SM. Association between utilization of quitline services and probability of tobacco abstinence in low-income smokers. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2016;71:58-62. Accessed on May 25, 2017
CG-Tobacco use - The Guide to Community Preventive Services (The Community Guide). Tobacco. Accessed on May 15, 2017
Cochrane-Ebbert 2015* - Ebbert J, Elrashidi M, Stead LF. Interventions for smokeless tobacco use cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2015;(2):CD004306. Accessed on May 15, 2017
Cochrane-Stead 2013a* - Stead LF, Hartman-Boyce J, Perera R, Lancaster T. Telephone counselling for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2013;(3):CD002850. Accessed on May 15, 2017
Cochrane-Stead 2015* - Stead LF, Koilpillai P, Lancaster T. Additional behavioural support as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2012;(12):CD009670. Accessed on May 15, 2017
Cummins 2015* - Cummins SE, Wong S, Bonnevie E, et al. A multistate Asian-language tobacco quitline: Addressing a disparity in access to care. American Journal of Public Health. 2015;105(10):2150-2155. Accessed on May 25, 2017
Danielsson 2014* - Danielsson AK, Eriksson AK, Allebeck P. Technology-based support via telephone or web: A systematic review of the effects on smoking, alcohol use and gambling. Addictive Behaviors. 2014;39(12):1846-1868. Accessed on May 16, 2017
Klesges 2015 - Klesges RC, Ebbert JO, Talcott GW, et al. Efficacy of a tobacco quitline in active duty military and TRICARE beneficiaries: A randomized trial. Military Medicine. 2015;180(8):917-925. Accessed on May 25, 2017
Mottillo 2009 - Mottillo S, Filion KB, Bélisle P, et al. Behavioural interventions for smoking cessation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. European Heart Journal. 2009;30(6):718-30. Accessed on May 15, 2017
Smith 2013* - Smith TJ. One Stop Service Center Initiative: Strategies for serving persons with disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation. 2013;79(1):30-36. Accessed on April 6, 2016
West 2015 - West R, Raw M, McNeill A, et al. Health-care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation: A review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development. Addiction. 2015;110(9):1388-1403. Accessed on May 15, 2017

Citations - Implementation

NAQC-Quitline facts - North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). What is a Quitline: factsheets, materials, and world quitline map. Accessed on May 15, 2017
NAQC-Wisconsin - North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). Wisconsin. Accessed on May 15, 2017
UW-CTRI WTQL - University of Wisconsin Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention (UW-CTRI). Wisconsin tobacco quit line (WTQL). Accessed on May 16, 2017

Page Last Updated

May 25, 2017

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