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Alcohol outlet density restrictions

Health Factors: Alcohol & Drug Use
Decision Makers: Community Development Professionals Local Government State Government Federal Government
Evidence Rating: Scientifically Supported
Population Reach: 50-99% of WI's population
Impact on Disparities: No impact on disparities likely

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Description

Use regulatory authority to reduce the density of alcohol beverage outlets (i.e., places that sell alcohol) or to limit increases in the density of such outlets. Regulation is often implemented through licensing or zoning processes (CG-Alcohol). State and local processes vary depending on the alcohol control system in place (APIS). 

Expected Beneficial Outcomes

Reduced excessive drinking
Reduced alcohol-related harms
Reduced underage drinking

Evidence of Effectiveness

There is strong evidence that increasing alcohol outlet density increases alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms; using regulatory authority (e.g., licensing and zoning) to reduce or limit outlet density can reduce excessive alcohol consumption and related harms (CG-Alcohol, Campbell 2009, Jernigan 2013, NIAAA-College drinking 2002).

Government policies that limit or ban establishments that sell or serve alcohol, or otherwise reduce alcohol outlet density, have been shown to reduce both consumption and harm, particularly in isolated environments without other sources of alcohol  (CG-Alcohol). Such policies are suggested strategies to reduce drinking among college students and other underage drinkers (RAND-Imm 2007, NIAAA-College drinking 2002).

Implementation

United States

California and Nebraska are examples of states that have undertaken efforts to reduce alcohol outlet density (CAMY-Alcohol outlet density).

Wisconsin

The number of alcohol outlets per capita in Wisconsin is double the national average (WI DHS-SHP 2020 Alcohol).

Implementation Resources

CAMY-Alcohol outlet density - Sparks M, Jernigan DH, Mosher JF. Strategizer 55 - Regulating alcohol outlet density: An action guide. Alexandria: Community for Anti-Drug Coalitions of America (CADCA); Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; 2011. Accessed on December 7, 2015
Jernigan 2013 - Jernigan D, Sparks M, Yang E, Schwartz R. Using public health and community partnerships to reduce density of alcohol outlets. Preventing Chronic Disease. 2013;10. Accessed on January 27, 2016

Citations - Description

APIS - Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS). Welcome to the Alcohol Policy Information System. Accessed on June 20, 2017
CG-Alcohol - The Guide to Community Preventive Services (The Community Guide). Excessive alcohol consumption. Accessed on May 16, 2017

Citations - Evidence

Campbell 2009 - Campbell C, Hahn R, Elder R, et al. The effectiveness of limiting alcohol outlet density as a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2009;37(6):556–69. Accessed on January 27, 2016
CG-Alcohol - The Guide to Community Preventive Services (The Community Guide). Excessive alcohol consumption. Accessed on May 16, 2017
Jernigan 2013 - Jernigan D, Sparks M, Yang E, Schwartz R. Using public health and community partnerships to reduce density of alcohol outlets. Preventing Chronic Disease. 2013;10. Accessed on January 27, 2016
NIAAA-College drinking 2002 - Task Force of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health (NIH). A call to action: Changing the culture of drinking at US colleges. Rockville: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA); 2002. Accessed on March 1, 2016
RAND-Imm 2007 - Imm P, Chinman M, Wandersman A, et al. Preventing underage drinking: Using Getting To Outcomes™ with the SAMHSA strategic prevention framework to achieve results. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation; 2007: Technical Report 403. Accessed on April 18, 2017

Citations - Implementation

CAMY-Alcohol outlet density - Sparks M, Jernigan DH, Mosher JF. Strategizer 55 - Regulating alcohol outlet density: An action guide. Alexandria: Community for Anti-Drug Coalitions of America (CADCA); Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; 2011. Accessed on December 7, 2015
WI DHS-SHP 2020 Alcohol - Wisconsin Department of Health Services (DHS). Healthiest Wisconsin 2020 focus area profiles. Accessed on January 28, 2016

Page Last Updated

September 5, 2014