School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (Tier 1)
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||10-19% of WI's population
|Impact on Disparities:
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School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is the first tier of the three tier Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) school-wide behavioral system. In schools using SWPBIS, staff teams establish three to five positively stated behavior expectations. These expectations are taught to all students and staff and reinforced through verbal praise and student rewards such as prizes or privileges. SWPBIS teams receive external coaching and support, and use school-level behavior data to monitor implementation and identify students who would benefit from further intervention; some schools then use more intensive PBIS interventions to support these students. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports is often considered an alternative to zero tolerance policies (Bradshaw 2013).
Expected Beneficial Outcomes
Improved youth behavior
Improved school climate
Improved social emotional skills
Increased academic achievement
Evidence of Effectiveness
There is strong evidence that School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWBPIS) improves school-age students’ behavior (Bradshaw 2012, Flannery 2014). SWPBIS appears to reduce disruptive and aggressive behavior (Bradshaw 2012), bullying and peer rejection (Waasdorp 2012), and suspensions (Simonsen 2012). It also appears to increase students’ concentration, kindness toward others, and emotional self-control (Bradshaw 2012). Effects can be stronger when children are exposed to SWPBIS at a young age (Bradshaw 2012).
SWPBIS has been shown to reduce office discipline referrals (ODRs) (Flannery 2014, Simonsen 2012, Muscott 2008), especially for girls (Bradshaw 2012). Studies of schools that implement SWPBIS have shown a statistically significant reduction in disparities between ODRs for black and white students. However, the discipline gap persists, and additional research on how to implement culturally responsive SWPBIS is needed (Vincent 2011).
SWPBIS can increase staff’s confidence, trust, and warmth towards students (Bradshaw 2009), as well as teacher’s self-efficacy (Kelm 2012). SWPBIS can also increase students’ cooperation and interest in academic achievement (Bradshaw 2009), and possibly lead to greater academic achievement (Horner 2009, Bradshaw 2010), Nelson 2002, McIntosh 2011).
Effects on student behavior (Flannery 2014, Simonsen 2012, Cheney 2012) and school climate (Bradshaw 2009) appear strongest in schools that implement SWPBIS with high fidelity. Gains in teacher efficacy also appear greater when fidelity is higher, especially in schools with many low income students (Ross 2012a). Implementing SWPBIS with high fidelity can increase academic achievement for students in high poverty communities and may help close the achievement gap between high and low poverty schools (McIntosh 2011).
Schools with mostly low income students appear to implement SWBPIS with lower fidelity; researchers suggest added implementation support for these schools (Molloy 2013). Schools with unhealthy work climates can take longer to implement SWPBIS with fidelity than healthier schools, but eventually improve school climate more dramatically (Bradshaw 2009).
Focus on winning staff and student buy-in, sustaining administrative support, facilitating strong teams, establishing system-level data, and aligning SWPBIS with other school initiatives appear to support SWPBIS implementation (Flannery 2014). Statewide partnerships can also support and fund SWPBIS; researchers recommend a coalition of stakeholders that develops a shared agenda through strong relationships built over time that develops a shared agenda to meet each contributor’s needs (Bradshaw 2012).
SWPBIS may also improve preschoolers’ behavior, especially when teachers receive cognitive behavioral training to help them feel able to successfully implement the intervention (Steed 2013).
As of 2014, over 21,600 schools across the United States implemented PBIS, representing 20% of US schools (WI PBIS-Horner 2014). Implementation varies considerably by state. In 14 states (Alabama, California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, and Wisconsin), SWPBIS Tier 1 is implemented in over 500 schools (WI PBIS-Horner 2014, US ED OSEP-PBIS). Currently, all states and Washington DC have a state SWPBIS coordinator (PBIS-Network).
As of 2015, 1,143 representatives of Wisconsin schools in 250 districts have attended PBIS training. Over 92% of those trained schools have begun the implementation process, approximately 70% of those schools are implementing PBIS with fidelity (WI PBIS-In action). Assessments in 2014 indicate that 102 schools in Wisconsin implemented SWPBIS Tier 1 with high fidelity (WI PBIS-Horner 2014).
- American Institutes for Research (AIR). School climate and safety. Accessed on October 5, 2016
AIR-SSL SCI resources
- American Institutes for Research (AIR). Safe supportive learning (SSL): School climate improvement (SCI) resource package. Accessed on October 5, 2016
- Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS). What is School-wide PBIS? Accessed on January 27, 2016
Citations - Description
- Bradshaw CP. Preventing bullying through positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS): A multitiered approach to prevention and integration. Theory Into Practice. 2013;52(4):288–95. Accessed on February 2, 2016
Citations - Evidence
- Bradshaw CP, Koth CW, Thornton LA, Leaf PJ. Altering school climate through school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science. 2009;10(2):100–15. Accessed on January 28, 2016
- Bradshaw CP, Mitchell MM, Leaf PJ. Examining the effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 2010;12(3):133-148. Accessed on February 4, 2016
- Bradshaw CP, Waasdorp TE, Leaf PJ. Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics. 2012;130(5):e1136–e1145. Accessed on February 1, 2016
- Cheney D, Jewell K. Chapter 5 positive behavior supports and students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders. 2012;23:83–106. Accessed on January 28, 2016
- Flannery KB, Fenning P, Kato MM, McIntosh K. Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports and fidelity of implementation on problem behavior in high schools. School Psychology Quarterly. 2014;29(2):111–24. Accessed on January 28, 2016
- Horner RH, Sugai G, Smolkowski K, et al. A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing School-wide Positive Behavior Support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 2009;11(3):133-144. Accessed on February 4, 2016
- Kelm JL, McIntosh K. Effects of school-wide positive behavior support on teacher self-efficacy. Psychology in the Schools. 2012;49(2):137-147. Accessed on February 4, 2016
- McIntosh K, Bennett JL, Price K. Evaluation of social and academic effects of School-wide Positive Behaviour Support in a Canadian school district. Exceptionality Education International. 2011;21(1):46-60. Accessed on February 4, 2016
- Molloy LE, Moore JE, Trail J, Van Epps JJ, Hopfer S. Understanding real-world implementation quality and “active ingredients” of PBIS. Prevention Science. 2013;14(6):593-605. Accessed on February 2, 2016
- Muscott HS, Mann EL, LeBrun MR. Positive behavioral interventions and supports in New Hampshire: Effects of large-scale implementation of schoolwide positive behavior support on student discipline and academic achievement. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 2008;10(3):190–205. Accessed on January 28, 2016
- Nelson JR, Martella RM, Marchand-Martella N. Maximizing student learning: The effects of a comprehensive school-based program for preventing problem behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. 2002;10(3):136-148. Accessed on February 4, 2016
- Ross SW, Romer N, Horner RH. Teacher well-being and the implementation of school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 2012;14(2):118–28. Accessed on January 28, 2016
- Simonsen B, Eber L, Black AC, Sugai G, Lewandowski H, Sims B, et al. Illinois statewide positive behavioral interventions and supports: Evolution and impact on student outcomes across years. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 2012;14(1):5–16. Accessed on January 28, 2016
- Steed EA, Durand VM. Optimistic teaching: Improving the capacity for teachers to reduce young children’s challenging behavior. School Mental Health. 2013;5(1):15-24. Accessed on February 1, 2016
- Vincent CG, Swain-Bradway J, Tobin TJ, May S. Disciplinary referrals for culturally and linguistically diverse students with and without disabilities: Patterns resulting from school-wide positive behavior support. Exceptionality: A Special Education Journal. 2011;19(3):175-190. Accessed on February 4, 2016
- Waasdorp TE, Bradshaw CP, Leaf PJ. The impact of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on bullying and peer rejection: A randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2):149-156. Accessed on January 27, 2016
Citations - Implementation
- Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS). PBIS State coordinator network. Accessed on January 28, 2016
US ED OSEP-PBIS
- US Department of Education (US ED), Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS). Accessed on February 28, 2017
WI PBIS-Horner 2014
- Horner R. Compression implementation and scaling PBIS: The fundamental purpose of SWPBIS is to make schools more effective and equitable learning environments. Wisconsin PBIS State Leadership Team Meeting Presentations. August 18, 2014. Accessed on February 4, 2016
WI PBIS-In action
- Wisconsin Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Network (WI PBIS). PBIS in action. Accessed on February 4, 2016
Page Last Updated
February 4, 2016
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