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Sports-related concussion education

Health Factors: Community Safety
Decision Makers: Community Members Educators Healthcare Professionals & Advocates Nonprofit Leaders Public Health Professionals & Advocates
Evidence Rating: Insufficient Evidence
Population Reach: 1-9% of WI's population
Impact on Disparities: No impact on disparities likely

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Description

Education regarding sports-related concussion informs youth and college athletes, coaches, and parents of the severity of concussions in sports, as well as proper prevention, detection, reporting, and treatment. Concussion education can be delivered through a combination of in-person lessons, videos, mobile applications, factsheets, or quizzes. Concussion is a type of mild traumatic brain injury that can occur through a fall or collision, or a blow to the head which causes the brain to move rapidly back and forth (CDC-Concussion, Harmon 2013).

Expected Beneficial Outcomes

Reduced sports-related concussion

Evidence of Effectiveness

There is insufficient evidence to determine whether educating coaches, athletes, and parents about sports-related concussions reduces concussion among athletes and prevents athletes from playing with concussion symptoms (Caron 2015, Kerr 2015a, Kerr 2015b). Available evidence suggests that educating middle school and high school football coaches may reduce youth athletes’ likelihood of concussion during practice but not during games (Kerr 2015a, Kerr 2015b). Concussion education for college-level coaches may also be associated with better identification and response to concussion (Kroshus 2016). In some cases, concussion education for high school and college athletes may increase knowledge about concussion and improve attitudes about concussion reporting in the short-term (Caron 2015, Kurowski 2015, Kroshus 2015, Kroshus 2014). However, additional evidence is needed to confirm effects. 

Implementation

United States

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Heads Up provides an online concussion training course and educational materials tailored to parents of youth athletes, coaches, school officials, and health care providers (CDC-Concussion). The National Federation of State High School Associations provides free online concussion courses for youth athletes and their parents and coaches (NFHS-Concussion). Brain 101: The Concussion Playbook is another example of a web-based concussion education program (Brain 101).

As of June 2017, all states have enacted a youth sports traumatic brain injury (TBI) law; 34 states require TBI-specific trainings for coaches and 41 states require youth athletic organizations to distribute a TBI information sheet to parents of student athletes and collect the signed sheet for students to participate in athletic activities (LawAtlas-TBI). Most laws include education for coaches, parents, and athletes, and require that an athlete who is suspected of having a concussion be removed from play (CDC-Concussion).

Wisconsin

The Wisconsin Interscholastic Athletic Association medical advisory committee and the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction have developed concussion guidelines, information, and educational resources for schools, youth sports programs, and parents (WIAA-Concussions, WI DPI-TBI). Wisconsin passed concussion legislation in 2012 which requires all youth athletic organizations to annually distribute a concussion and head injury information and acknowledgement sheet to parents, coaches, and athletes and collect the signed sheet (WIAA-Concussions).

Implementation Resources

CDC-Heads Up training - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). HEADS UP online training courses. Accessed on May 16, 2018
NCAA-Concussion - National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Concussion educational resources. Accessed on May 16, 2018
NFHS-Concussion - National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS). Concussion courses. Accessed on May 16, 2018

Citations - Description

CDC-Concussion - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Heads Up: Minimize the risk of concussion or other serious brain injury in sports. Accessed on May 17, 2018
Harmon 2013* - Harmon KG, Drezner JA, Gammons M, et al. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine position statement: Concussion in sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2013;47(1):15-26. Accessed on May 16, 2018

Citations - Evidence

Caron 2015* - Caron JG, Bloom GA, Falcão WR, Sweet SN. An examination of concussion education programmes: A scoping review methodology. Injury Prevention. 2015;21(5):301-308. Accessed on May 16, 2018
Kerr 2015a - Kerr ZY, Yeargin S, Valovich McLeod TC, et al. Comprehensive coach education and practice contact restriction guidelines result in lower injury rates in youth American football. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine. 2015;3(7):2325967115594578. Accessed on May 16, 2018
Kerr 2015b - Kerr ZY, Yeargin SW, Valovich McLeod TC, et al. Comprehensive coach education reduces head impact exposure in American youth football. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine. 2015;3(10):2325967115610545. Accessed on May 16, 2018
Kroshus 2014* - Kroshus E, Daneshvar DH, Baugh CM, Nowinski CJ, Cantu RC. NCAA concussion education in ice hockey: An ineffective mandate. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2014;48(2):135-140. Accessed on May 16, 2018
Kroshus 2015* - Kroshus E, Baugh CM, Hawrilenko M, Daneshvar DH. Pilot randomized evaluation of publically available concussion education materials: Evidence of a possible negative effect. Health Education & Behavior. 2015;42(2):153-162. Accessed on May 16, 2018
Kroshus 2016* - Kroshus E, Baugh CM, Daneshvar DH. Content, delivery, and effectiveness of concussion education for US college coaches. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2016;26(5):391-397. Accessed on May 16, 2018
Kurowski 2015 - Kurowski BG, Pomerantz WJ, Schaiper C, Ho M, Gittelman MA. Impact of preseason concussion education on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of high school athletes. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 2015;79(3 Suppl 1):S21-S28. Accessed on May 16, 2018

Citations - Implementation

Brain 101 - The Oregon Center for Applied Science. Brain 101: The Concussion Playbook. Accessed on May 16, 2018
CDC-Concussion - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Heads Up: Minimize the risk of concussion or other serious brain injury in sports. Accessed on May 17, 2018
LawAtlas-TBI - Law Atlas. Youth sports traumatic brain injury (TBI) laws map. Accessed on May 17, 2018
NFHS-Concussion - National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS). Concussion courses. Accessed on May 16, 2018
WI DPI-TBI - Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (WI DPI). Traumatic brain injury (TBI). Accessed on May 16, 2018
WIAA-Concussions - Wisconsin Interscholastic Athletic Association (WIAA). Concussion information. Accessed on May 17, 2018

Page Last Updated

May 4, 2018

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