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Court mandated programs for perpetrators of intimate partner violence

Health Factors: Community Safety
Decision Makers: Local Government State Government Federal Government Nonprofit Leaders
Evidence Rating: Mixed Evidence
Population Reach: 10-19% of WI's population
Impact on Disparities: No impact on disparities likely

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Description

Court mandated programs for perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV), also called batterer intervention programs (BIPs), expand offenders' definitions of abuse, increase the responsibility they feel, and then teach alternative reactions (Saunders 2008). BIPs are usually group sessions with a facilitator, but intervention approaches vary. Traditional approaches are based on feminist perspectives and cognitive behavioral therapy focused on changing attitudes toward gender roles and behaviors (e.g., the Duluth model). Alternative approaches include motivational enhancement interventions, case management interventions, and couples’ therapy (Aaron 2016, Eckhardt 2013).

Expected Beneficial Outcomes

Reduced intimate partner violence

Evidence of Effectiveness

There is mixed evidence about the effects of court mandated batterer intervention programs (BIPs) on recidivism among perpetrators of intimate partner violence. Overall, evidence suggests that court mandated BIPs do not reduce recidivism for most offenders (Arias 2013, Campbell-Feder 2008). However, alternative BIP models may reduce recidivism rates (Eckhardt 2013). Additional research is needed to confirm effects.

Traditional BIP models do not appear to affect recidivism rates (Eckhardt 2013, Herman 2014) and appear less effective than restorative justice programs (Mills 2013). Resolution Counseling Intervention Program, a counseling-based psychoeducational alternative BIP approach, has been associated with increased anger management, desire for change, and behavioral control among participants as well as decreases in stress and violent behaviors (Crockett 2015).

Efforts to improve program completion (e.g., motivational techniques and attendance monitoring), participant risk assessments, and tailored interventions based on participants’ circumstances (e.g., substance use, mental health issues, military experience) and type of violence are suggested strategies to increase effectiveness of BIPs (Aaron 2016, Radatz 2016, Cantos 2015, Hoyt 2014, Saunders 2008).

Implementation

United States

As of July 2014, 16 states have legislation to regulate licensing, certification, or standards for batterer intervention programs (CDC-BIP laws 2015).

Wisconsin

Wisconsin Batterers Treatment Provider Association (WBTPA) provides state standards and resources for male batterers' treatment (WBTPA).

Implementation Resources

CWIG-BIP - Child Welfare Information Gateway (CWIG). Batterer intervention programs (BIP). Accessed on August 5, 2016

Citations - Description

Aaron 2016* - Aaron SM, Beaulaurier RL. The need for new emphasis on batterers intervention programs. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. 2016. Accessed on August 7, 2016
Eckhardt 2013 - Eckhardt CI, Murphy CM, Whitaker DJ, et al. The effectiveness of intervention programs for perpetrators and victims of intimate partner violence. Partner Abuse. 2013;4(2):196–231. Accessed on August 5, 2016
Saunders 2008* - Saunders DG. Group interventions for men who batter: A summary of program descriptions and research. Violence and Victims. 2008;23(2):156–72. Accessed on August 5, 2016

Citations - Evidence

Aaron 2016* - Aaron SM, Beaulaurier RL. The need for new emphasis on batterers intervention programs. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. 2016. Accessed on August 7, 2016
Arias 2013 - Arias E, Arce R, Vilariño M. Batterer intervention programmes: A meta-analytic review of effectiveness. Psychosocial Intervention. 2013;22(2):153–160. Accessed on August 5, 2016
Campbell-Feder 2008 - Feder L, Wilson DB, Austin S. Court-mandated interventions for individuals convicted of domestic violence. Campbell Systematic Reviews. 2008:12. Accessed on August 5, 2016
Cantos 2015 - Cantos AL, Goldstein DA, Brenner L, O’Leary KD, Verborg R. Correlates and program completion of family only and generally violent perpetrators of intimate partner violence. Behavioral Psychology. 2015;23(3):549–569. Accessed on August 5, 2016
Crockett 2015* - Crockett EE, Keneski E, Yeager K, Loving TJ. Breaking the mold: Evaluating a non-punitive domestic violence intervention program. Journal of Family Violence. 2015;30(4):489–499. Accessed on August 5, 2016
Eckhardt 2013 - Eckhardt CI, Murphy CM, Whitaker DJ, et al. The effectiveness of intervention programs for perpetrators and victims of intimate partner violence. Partner Abuse. 2013;4(2):196–231. Accessed on August 5, 2016
Herman 2014* - Herman K, Rotunda R, Williamson G, Vodanovich S. Outcomes from a Duluth model batterer intervention program at completion and long term follow-up. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. 2014;53(1):1–18. Accessed on August 5, 2016
Hoyt 2014* - Hoyt T, Wray AM, Rielage JK. Preliminary investigation of the roles of military background and posttraumatic stress symptoms in frequency and recidivism of intimate partner violence perpetration among court-referred men. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2014;29(6):1094–1110. Accessed on August 5, 2016
Mills 2013* - Mills LG, Barocas B, Ariel B. The next generation of court-mandated domestic violence treatment: a comparison study of batterer intervention and restorative justice programs. Journal of Experimental Criminology. 2013;9(1):65–90. Accessed on August 5, 2016
Radatz 2016* - Radatz DL, Wright EM. Integrating the principles of effective intervention into batterer intervention programming: The case for moving toward more evidence-based programming. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. 2016;17(1):72–87. Accessed on August 5, 2016
Saunders 2008* - Saunders DG. Group interventions for men who batter: A summary of program descriptions and research. Violence and Victims. 2008;23(2):156–72. Accessed on August 5, 2016

Citations - Implementation

CDC-BIP laws 2015 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Menu of state batterer intervention program (BIP) laws. 2015. Accessed on August 7, 2016
WBTPA - Wisconsin Batterers Treatment Provider Association (WBTPA). End domestic abuse Wisconsin. Accessed on August 5, 2016

Page Last Updated

August 5, 2016

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