Physical Environment Air & Water Quality Housing & Transit Search Policies & Programs

hints
Display All Policies & Programs

Carpool & rideshare programs

Health Factors: Air & Water Quality Housing & Transit
Decision Makers: Community Members Employers & Businesses Local Government State Government Nonprofit Leaders
Evidence Rating: Expert Opinion
Population Reach: 50-99% of WI's population
Impact on Disparities: No impact on disparities likely

Is this program or policy in use in your community? Tell us about it.

Description

Carpool and rideshare programs help commuters share transportation. Carpools and rideshares can be informal arrangements between individuals, sometimes called casual carpooling, or be formally arranged through dynamic ridesharing programs or other ride-matching services. Employers, along with state and local governments, often support the creation of carpools and vanpools, coordinate ridership, and provide incentives such as preferential parking for participants (UC Davis-Yura 2006). 

Expected Beneficial Outcomes

Reduced traffic congestion
Reduced emissions
Reduced vehicle miles traveled
Increased mobility
Improved quality of life

Evidence of Effectiveness

Carpool and rideshare programs are suggested strategies to reduce traffic congestion, decrease emissions, and reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT) (UC Davis-Yura 2006, ICF Consulting 2006, RAND-Sorenson 2008). Studies suggest that these programs can be cost effective (ICF Consulting 2006, RAND-Sorenson 2008, Gallivan 2011), especially for longer commutes (Silva-Send 2013); programs may also improve mobility and quality of life for seniors (Silvis 2009) and reduce stress for commuters (Robbins 2015). Overall, transit incentives can increase use of alternative transportation; however, additional evidence is needed to confirm effects and costs of carpool and rideshare programs specifically (Graham-Rowe 2011).

Available research suggests that improving awareness, trust and willingness to ride with strangers (Chaube 2010, Deakin 2010, Levofsky 2001), and flexibility in scheduling may increase carpool use (Erdogan 2015, Chaube 2010, Deakin 2010, Levofsky 2001). Carpool use may also increase with incentives such as free or decreased toll rates (UC Davis-Yura 2006, Li 2007, RAND-Sorenson 2008) and reduced parking prices for carpool or rideshare vehicles (Erdogan 2015, Salon 2012, Wilson 2008). High gas prices (Javid 2016, Erdogan 2015) and high costs of parking for individual cars may also support carpooling (Erdogan 2015).

High occupancy vehicle lanes (HOVs) may increase carpooling and ridesharing in some circumstances; however, local context strongly influences the success or failure of HOVs and carpool or rideshare programs (Shewmake 2012). 

Implementation

United States

There are roughly 613 ride-matching services in the US and Canada as of 2012. Many services incorporate the use of technology (e.g., internet, mobile phones, mobile apps, and social networking) (Chan 2012). Many state Department of Transportation offices provide information on state rideshare programs; Michigan and Washington are two examples (MDOT-Rideshare, WSDOT-Carpool). Rideshare services offer searchable databases to find carpool and rideshare opportunities in most states; examples include eRideShare, Ridester, and Drive Less Connect (eRideShare, Ridester, Drive Less Connect). 

Wisconsin

RIDESHARE is a free internet-based program provided by the State of Wisconsin that brings commuters together. The program serves commuters in Wisconsin as well as bordering counties in Iowa, Illinois, Michigan, and Minnesota (WisDOT-Rideshare). 

Implementation Resources

CCAP-Transportation emissions - Center for Clean Air Policy (CCAP). CCAP Transportation emissions guidebook. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Drive Less Save More - Drive Less, Save More. Carpooling & vanpooling how-to’s. Accessed on July 26, 2017
Gishigo - GishiGo. Ride share network. Accessed on July 12, 2017
NCTR-Ridematching - National Center for Transit Research (NCTR). Ridematching software: list of programs with ridematching systems. Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR), University of South Florida (USF). Accessed on July 26, 2017

Citations - Description

UC Davis-Yura 2006 - Yura EA, Eisinger D, Deb Niemeier. A review of on-road vehicle mitigation measures. Davis: University of California, Davis; 2006. Accessed on July 12, 2017

Citations - Evidence

Chaube 2010* - Chaube V, Kavanaugh AL, Pérez-Quiñones MA. Leveraging social networks to embed trust in rideshare programs. In: Proceedings of the 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences - 2010. Washington, DC: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE); 2010. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Deakin 2010* - Deakin E, Frick KT, Shively KM. Markets for dynamic ridesharing? Case of Berkeley, California. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2010;2187:131-7. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Erdogan 2015* - Erdogan S, Cirillo C, Tremblay JM. Ridesharing as a green commute alternative: A campus case study. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation. 2015;9(5):377-388. Accessed on July 26, 2017
Gallivan 2011* - Gallivan F, Ang-Olson J, Liban CB, Kusumoto A. Cost-effective approaches to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through public transportation in Los Angeles, California. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2011;2(2217):19–29. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Graham-Rowe 2011* - Graham-Rowe E, Skippon S, Gardner B, Abraham C. Can we reduce car use and, if so, how? A review of available evidence. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 2011;45(5):401–18. Accessed on July 12, 2017
ICF Consulting 2006 - ICF Consulting. Performance review of transportation fund for clean air projects: Literature review. Fairfax: ICF Consulting; 2006. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Javid 2016 - Javid RJ, Nejat A, Salari M. The environmental impacts of carpooling in the United States. 2016. Accessed on July 26, 2017
Levofsky 2001 - Levofsky A, Greenberg A. Organized dynamic ride sharing: The potential environmental benefits and the opportunity for advancing the concept. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board 2001 Annual Meeting. 2001: Working Paper 01-0577. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Li 2007* - Li J, Embry P, Mattingly SP, et al. Who chooses to carpool and why? Examination of Texas carpoolers. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2007;2021:110-7. Accessed on July 12, 2017
RAND-Sorenson 2008 - Sorenson P, Wachs M, Min EY, et al. Moving Los Angeles: Short-term policy options for improving transportation. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation; 2008: Monograph Report 748. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Robbins 2015* - Robbins WA, Berman BA, Stone DS. Health effects of vanpooling to work. Workplace Health & Safety. 2015;63(12):554-563. Accessed on July 26, 2017
Salon 2012* - Salon D, Boarnet MG, Handy S, Spears S, Tal G. How do local actions affect VMT? A critical review of the empirical evidence. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2012;17(7):495–508. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Shewmake 2012* - Shewmake S. Can carpooling clear the road and clean the air?: Evidence from the literature on the impact of HOV lanes on VMT and air pollution. Journal of Planning Literature. 2012;27(4):363–74. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Silva-Send 2013* - Silva-Send N, Anders S, Narwold A. Cost effectiveness comparison of certain transportation measures to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in San Diego County, California. Energy Policy. 2013;62:1428–33. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Silvis 2009 - Silvis J, Niemeier D. Social network and dwelling characteristics that influence ridesharing behavior of seniors. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2009;(2118):47-54. Accessed on July 12, 2017
UC Davis-Yura 2006 - Yura EA, Eisinger D, Deb Niemeier. A review of on-road vehicle mitigation measures. Davis: University of California, Davis; 2006. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Wilson 2008* - Wilson RW, Brown KD. Carbon neutrality at the local level: Achievable goal or fantasy? Journal of the American Planning Association. 2008;74(4):497-504. Accessed on July 12, 2017

Citations - Implementation

Chan 2012* - Chan ND, Shaheen SA. Ridesharing in North America: Past, present, and future. Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal. 2012;32(1):93-112. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Drive Less Connect - Drive Less, Connect. Matching people with places: Oregon’s secure, online ride-matching tool. Accessed on July 26, 2017
eRideShare - eRideShare.com. Accessed on July 12, 2017
MDOT-Rideshare - Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). Michigan Rideshare: Share the ride, share the cost. Accessed on July 26, 2017
Ridester - Ridester. Life is journey. Share it. Accessed on July 12, 2017
WisDOT-Rideshare - Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT). Wisconsin's rideshare program. Accessed on July 12, 2017
WSDOT-Carpool - Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). Carpools and vanpools. Accessed on July 26, 2017

Page Last Updated

July 27, 2017

* Journal subscription may be required for access.