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Rain barrels

Health Factors: Air & Water Quality
Decision Makers: Community Members Employers & Businesses Local Government State Government Nonprofit Leaders
Evidence Rating: Some Evidence
Population Reach: 50-99% of WI's population
Impact on Disparities: No impact on disparities likely

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Description

Rain barrels collect and store rainwater from rooftops that would otherwise flow to storm drains and streams. Rain barrels can be purchased ready-made or created from off-the-shelf items such as a large barrel, vinyl hose, PVC couplings, and screen grates. Rain barrels are usually used in residential settings; cisterns or other storage units collect or store rainwater from larger buildings (US EPA-Rain barrels). Rain barrel or rainwater harvesting programs can be implemented by individuals or supported by city or state initiatives. Such initiatives are frequently combined with other green infrastructure projects such as rain gardens and permeable pavement, and with education about stormwater management, water conservation, and homeowner water resource management (Bakacs 2013).

Expected Beneficial Outcomes

Reduced run-off
Increased water conservation
Reduced water pollution
Reduced energy use

Evidence of Effectiveness

There is some evidence that rain barrels reduce stormwater run-off, which is a major cause of flooding, erosion, and water pollution, especially in urban areas (Ahiablame 2013Ahiablame 2016, Litofsky 2014Aad 2010Liu 2015, Di Vittorio 2015, Jennings 2013Steffen 2013, Martin 2015, Rostad 2016, Wright 2016). Rain barrels are also a suggested strategy to increase water conservation and reduce water pollution (US EPA-Rain barrelsCDC-RainwaterGuo 2007Shuster 2013). Additional evidence is needed to confirm effects.

Rainwater harvesting and gray-water reuse through rain barrel systems can reduce consumption of potable water and generation of wastewater, which may lead to significant energy savings for national and local utilities (Malinowski 2015). A Virginia-based study suggests irrigating urban agriculture sites with rainwater harvested in rain barrels instead of municipal water supplies can reduce run-off and greenhouse gas emissions (Parece 2016).

Rainwater harvesting can reduce stormwater run-off volume up to 20% in semiarid regions, and less in regions that receive greater amounts of rainfall (Steffen 2013). Rain barrels’ effects vary by region in the United States; the largest run-off reductions occur in the southwest, and the smallest in the southeast (Litofsky 2014).

Rain barrel systems’ benefits are limited by the capacity of the barrel or storage unit. Broad implementation throughout a region or efforts to combine rain barrels with additional stormwater management techniques and tools, such as porous pavement or rain gardens, can increase effects (Jennings 2013Ahiablame 2013, Martin-Mikle 2015, Di Vittorio 2015).

Take-up of green technology (e.g., rain barrels) is associated with owner occupancy, higher incomes, and sustainably-minded individuals (Ando 2011); gardeners are the most frequent adopters. Cost and lack of knowledge can be barriers to adoption (Gao 2016). Regular re-examination and updates to plumbing codes and regulations can support adoption of new practices such as rainwater harvesting and gray water reuse (Novak 2015).

Rain barrel systems are relatively simple and inexpensive to construct and install; costs range from $4-11 per cubic foot of stormwater storage capacity (Wright 2016). Rain barrels save most homeowners about 1,300 gallons of water during peak summer months, reducing demand for treated tap water and water bills for participating homeowners (US EPA-Rain barrels).

Rain barrels are especially cost-effective for outdoor water use (Dallman 2016, Jha 2015). Overall, rain barrel systems generate positive net benefits for homeowners and society (Logan 2014), with even larger net benefits for stormwater management systems that combine rain barrels with other green infrastructure (Mitchell 2016).

Implementation

United States

Twelve states - Arizona, Colorado, Illinois, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Virginia, and Washington - have rainwater harvesting and graywater laws and programs. Many states have regulations that limit the use of harvested rainwater to outdoor, irrigation, and other water conservation uses, and prohibit potable water uses. Other states (e.g., Texas and Ohio) have comprehensive legislation that supports rainwater harvesting for all purposes, including potable water use (NCSL-Rainwater legislation 2013).

Cities and municipalities across the country have rain barrel programs that give away rain barrels or subsidize purchases, for example, New York City (NYC DEP-Rain barrels), Philadelphia (Philadelphia-Rain barrels), Chicago (Chicago-Rain barrels), Syracuse (Syracuse-STR), and Cleveland (Cleveland-Rain barrels). Other cities and counties provide information to encourage residential rain barrel and cistern use, as in Los Angeles (LA-Rain barrels), or offer rain barrel making workshops, as in Fairfax County, Virginia (Fairfax-Rain barrels). In Chicago, city agency partners propose repurposing an abandoned potable water tunnel into a 3 mile long rain barrel to increase capacity; it has a potential stormwater storage volume of 6 million gallons (Gage 2016).

Wisconsin

Some municipalities in Wisconsin subsidize rain barrels, for example, River Falls (River Falls-Rain barrels) and LaCrosse (LaCrosse-Stormwater). Others share information to encourage residential rain barrel use, as in Madison (Madison-Rain barrels).

Implementation Resources

DIY-Rain barrels - Do It Yourself Network (DIY). How to build a rainwater diverter and rain barrel. Accessed on January 12, 2017
Greene 2015 - Greene B, Mesner N, Brain R. Fact sheet: Rain Barrels in Utah. Utah State University Extension Sustainability; Paper 747. 2015. Accessed on February 7, 2017
Harvest H2O - HarvestH2O. Rainwater harvesting: Frequently asked questions. Accessed on January 12, 2017
Instructables-Rain barrels - Instructables. Shape what you make: Rain barrels. Accessed on January 12, 2017
Rainwater Plus - Rainwater+. A new tool for urban rainwater runoff assessment and management. Accessed on February 6, 2017

Citations - Description

Bakacs 2013 - Bakacs ME, Hill C, Mellor S. Rain barrels: A catalyst for change. Journal of Extension. 2013;51(3):1-10. Accessed on January 12, 2017
US EPA-Rain barrels - US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Rain barrels. Accessed on January 12, 2017

Citations - Evidence

Aad 2010* - Aad MPA, Suidan MT, Shuster WD. Modeling techniques of best management practices: Rain barrels and rain gardens using EPA SWMM-5. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering. 2010;(15):434-443. Accessed on January 11, 2017
Ahiablame 2013* - Ahiablame LM, Engel BA, Chaubey I. Effectiveness of low impact development practices in two urbanized watersheds: Retrofitting with rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement. Journal of Environmental Management. 2013;119:151-61. Accessed on January 11, 2017
Ahiablame 2016* - Ahiablame L, Shakya R. Modeling flood reduction effects of low impact development at a watershed scale. Journal of Environmental Management. 2016;171:81-91. Accessed on February 6, 2017
Ando 2011 - Ando AW, Freitas LPC. Consumer demand for green stormwater management technology in an urban setting: The case of Chicago rain barrels. Water Resources Research. 2011;47:1-11. Accessed on January 12, 2017
CDC-Rainwater - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Drinking water: Rainwater collection. Accessed on January 12, 2017
Dallman 2016* - Dallman S, Chaudhry AM, Muleta MK, Lee J. The value of rain: Benefit-cost analysis of rainwater harvesting systems. Water Resources Management. 2016;30(12):4415-4428. Accessed on February 6, 2017
Di Vittorio 2015 - Di Vittorio D, Ahiablame L. Spatial translation and scaling up of low impact development designs in an urban watershed. Journal of Water Management Modeling. 2015:1-9. Accessed on February 6, 2017
Gao 2016* - Gao Y, Babin N, Turner AJ, et al. Understanding urban-suburban adoption and maintenance of rain barrels. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2016;153:99-110. Accessed on February 6, 2017
Guo 2007* - Guo Y, Baetz BW. Sizing of rainwater storage units for green building applications. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering. 2007;12(2):197-205. Accessed on January 12, 2017
Jennings 2013* - Jennings AA, Adeel AA, Hopkins A, Litofsky AL, Wellstead SW. Rain barrel: Urban garden stormwater management performance. Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2013;(139):757-765. Accessed on January 12, 2017
Jha 2015 - Jha MK, Shah N. Evaluating rainwater harvesting system for school buildings. American Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2015;11(4):256-261. Accessed on February 6, 2017
Litofsky 2014* - Litofsky ALE, Jennings AA. Evaluating rain barrel storm water management effectiveness across climatography zones of the United States. Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2014;(140):04014009-1-10. Accessed on January 12, 2017
Liu 2015* - Liu Y, Ahiablame LM, Bralts VF, Engel BA. Enhancing a rainfall-runoff model to assess the impacts of BMPs and LID practices on storm runoff. Journal of Environmental Management. 2015;147:12-23. Accessed on February 6, 2017
Logan 2014* - Logan J. Using a spreadsheet to model rain barrel efficiency and cost benefit for homeowners. HortTechnology. 2014;24(1):156-158. Accessed on January 12, 2017
Malinowski 2015* - Malinowski PA, Stillwell AS, Wu JS, Schwarz PM. Energy-water nexus: Potential energy savings and implications for sustainable integrated water management in urban areas from rainwater harvesting and gray-water reuse. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management. 2015;141(12):A4015003. Accessed on February 6, 2017
Martin 2015* - Martin AR, Ahiablame LM, Engel BA. Modeling low impact development in two Chicago communities. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology. 2015;1(6):855-864. Accessed on February 6, 2017
Martin-Mikle 2015 - Martin-Mikle CJ, de Beurs KM, Julian JP, Mayer PM. Identifying priority sites for low impact development (LID) in a mixed-use watershed. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2015;140:29-41. Accessed on February 6, 2017
Mitchell 2016* - Mitchell K, Ladouceur A, Liu R, Coffman R. Triple bottom line cost-benefit analysis of green infrastructure in Norman, Oklahoma. The International Journal of the Constructed Environment. 2016;7(4):1-15. Accessed on February 6, 2017
Novak 2015 - Novak PJ, Arnold WA, Henningsgaard B, et al. Innovation promoted by regulatory flexibility. Environmental Science & Technology. 2015;49(24):13908-13909. Accessed on February 6, 2017
Parece 2016* - Parece TE, Lumpkin M, Campbell JB. Irrigating urban agriculture with harvested rainwater: Case study in Roanoke, Virginia, USA. In: Younos T, Parece TE, eds. Sustainable Water Management in Urban Environments. Vol 47. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing; 2016:235-263. Accessed on February 6, 2017
Rostad 2016* - Rostad N, Foti R, Montalto FA. Harvesting rooftop runoff to flush toilets: Drawing conclusions from four major U.S. cities. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 2016;108:97-106. Accessed on February 6, 2017
Shuster 2013* - Shuster WD, Lye D, De La Cruz A, et al. Assessment of residential rain barrel water quality and use in Cincinnati, Ohio. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 2013;49(4):753-765. Accessed on January 12, 2017
Steffen 2013* - Steffen J, Jensen M, Pomeroy CA, Burian SJ. Water supply and stormwater management benefits of residential rainwater harvesting in U.S. cities. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 2013;49(4):810-824. Accessed on January 12, 2017
US EPA-Rain barrels - US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Rain barrels. Accessed on January 12, 2017
Wright 2016* - Wright TJ, Liu Y, Carroll NJ, Ahiablame LM, Engel BA. Retrofitting LID practices into existing neighborhoods: Is it worth it? Environmental Management. 2016;57(4):856-867. Accessed on February 6, 2017

Citations - Implementation

Chicago-Rain barrels - Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago. Rain barrels. Accessed on January 12, 2017
Cleveland-Rain barrels - City of Cleveland. Water quality and efficiency: Rain barrel program. Accessed on January 12, 2017
Fairfax-Rain barrels - Fairfax County Virginia. Rain barrel workshops. Accessed on January 12, 2017
Gage 2016* - Gage J, Yurik J, Martin A. The world’s largest rain barrel: Chicago considers repurposing an abandoned tunnel into a massive rooftop rainwater collection system. WE&T Magazine. 2016. Accessed on February 6, 2017
LA-Rain barrels - City of Los Angeles Stormwater Program. Rain barrels and cisterns. Accessed on January 12, 2017
LaCrosse-Stormwater - City of LaCrosse Wisconsin. Stormwater utility credit policy: Board of Public Works approval date, 1/30/2012. Accessed on January 12, 2017
Madison-Rain barrels - City of Madison Wisconsin. Rain barrels. Accessed on January 12, 2017
NCSL-Rainwater legislation 2013 - National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). State rainwater/graywater harvesting laws and legislation. 2013. Accessed on January 12, 2017
NYC DEP-Rain barrels - New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYC DEP). 2013 Rain barrel giveaway program. Accessed on January 12, 2017
Philadelphia-Rain barrels - Philadelphia Water Department. Rain barrel workshops. Accessed on January 12, 2017
River Falls-Rain barrels - River Falls Wisconsin. Rain barrels. Accessed on January 12, 2017
Syracuse-STR - City of Syracuse, Onondaga County, New York. Save the Rain (STR) rain barrel program. Accessed on February 6, 2017

Page Last Updated

February 7, 2017

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