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Integrated pest management for indoor use

Health Factors: Housing & Transit
Decision Makers: Community Members Educators Employers & Businesses Local Government State Government Federal Government Nonprofit Leaders
Evidence Rating: Scientifically Supported
Population Reach: 50-99% of WI's population
Impact on Disparities: Likely to decrease disparities

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Description

Integrated pest management (IPM) includes a broad range of methods to control pests that also minimize potential hazards to people, property, and the environment. IPM employs a four-tiered approach – setting action thresholds, identifying and monitoring pests, preventing pests from becoming a threat (e.g., sealing cracks and crevices), and pest control as needed. IPM pest control begins with the least risky approaches (e.g., mechanical controls such as trapping) and moves to targeted pesticide use only if other measures are not successful. Often used in agriculture, IPM can also be used in indoor settings such as homes, schools, workplaces, or other environments that may be affected by mice, roaches, or other pests (US EPA-IPM, UC Ag-IPM). 

Expected Beneficial Outcomes

Reduced pesticide exposure
Improved health outcomes
Improved housing conditions

Evidence of Effectiveness

There is strong evidence that using integrated pest management (IPM) in indoor settings reduces pest and pesticide exposure (Krieger 2010, Jacobs 2010, Sandel 2010, Brenner 2003). IPM has also been shown to improve health outcomes, housing conditions, and indoor environments, and to reduce exposure to cockroach allergens (Rabito 2017, Nalyanya 2014, Krieger 2010), especially when implemented as part of a multi-component home-based environmental intervention (Crocker 2011).

IPM techniques have been shown to reduce the number of asthma symptom days (Rabito 2017, Crocker 2011) and school days missed by children living in low income, urban areas. These techniques have also been shown to reduce mouse and rat allergen exposure, which may exacerbate asthma symptoms (Crocker 2011). Insecticidal bait, an inexpensive type of IPM, can reduce the number of cockroaches and reduce the number of asthma symptom days for children in low income areas (Rabito 2017). IPM has also been shown to reduce exposure to cockroach allergens in schools (Nalyanya 2014) and child care centers (Kalmar 2014); schools in states with designated IPM funding are more likely to use IPM than schools without such funding (Jones 2015a).

By improving housing conditions (e.g., sealing cracks, repairing deteriorating walls or window frames, and improving cleaning habits), IPM makes homes less appealing and accessible to pests and reduces pesticide use and related neurological effects (Sandel 2010). Acute pesticide poisoning causes adverse health effects such as seizures, rashes, and gastrointestinal illness. Chronic pesticide exposure also increases risks to human health, with potential neurologic, reproductive, and genotoxic effects, as well as increases in cancer risk. Health risks are highest for vulnerable populations, especially children (Sanborn 2007); exposure to indoor pesticides contributes to an increased risk of childhood leukemia and childhood lymphomas (Chen 2015a).

Pesticides are often used in large quantities in low income, urban areas (Brenner 2003); IPM strategies used in these areas can reduce disparities, especially for children, in exposure to pests, asthma morbidity (Rabito 2017), pesticide exposure, and related health risks (Brenner 2003).

Individually tailored IPM plans can be cost-effective, with costs that are often equal to or less than traditional chemical pest control (Brenner 2003). IPM methods can reduce health care utilization and spending (Rabito 2017, Fabian 2014).

Implementation

United States

IPM is in use in single and multi-family homes, schools, childcare facilities, and workplaces across the country. It has been mandated on federal property since 1996 (US GSA-IPM). As of 2017, 33 states have IPM-related laws for schools and over 400 school districts have IPM policies or programs (Beyond Pesticides).

The US General Services Agency (GSA) is the primary agency responsible for distributing information about structural IPM (US GSA-IPM). The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (US HUD) also provides information about IPM for safe pest control in homes across the country (US HUD-IPM). 

For several years, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offered grants to fund projects that promote IPM adoption in schools (US EPA-School IPM grants).

Wisconsin

Wisconsin has a school IPM program that provides tools and technical resources to K-12 schools to reduce their pesticide use (WI DATCP-School IPM).

Implementation Resources

AHA-IPM - American Hospital Association (AHA). Sustainability roadmap for hospitals: Implement integrated pest management (IPM) practices in your facility. Accessed on July 12, 2017
CDC EHS-IPM - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Environmental Health Services (EHS). Vector control: Integrated pest management (IPM). Accessed on July 12, 2017
CDC-IPM manual 2006 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Integrated pest management: Conducting urban rodent surveys. Atlanta;2006. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Maley 2014 - Maley M, Taisey A, Koplinka-Loehr C. Integrated pest management (IPM): A guide for affordable housing. Stop Pests in Housing, Northeastern IPM Center. 2014. Accessed on July 12, 2017
NCHH-IPM - National Center for Healthy Housing (NCHH). Integrated pest management (IPM). Accessed on July 12, 2017
School IPM toolbox - National School IPM Information Source. National school integrated pest management (IPM) toolbox. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Accessed on July 18, 2017
US EPA-IPM in buildings - US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Integrated pest management (IMP) in buildings. EPA 731-K-11-001;2011. Accessed on July 12, 2017
US EPA-IPM in schools - US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Managing pests in schools: About integrated pest management (IPM) in schools, and tools, tips, and resources to implement IPM. Accessed on July 12, 2017

Citations - Description

UC Ag-IPM - University of California Agriculture & Natural Resources (UC Ag). Statewide integrated pest management program: What is integrated pest management (IPM)? Accessed on July 12, 2017
US EPA-IPM - US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Integrated pest management (IPM) principles. Accessed on July 12, 2017

Citations - Evidence

Brenner 2003 - Brenner BL, Markowitz S, Rivera M, et al. Integrated pest management in an urban community: A successful partnership for prevention. Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP). 2003;111(13):1649-1653. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Chen 2015a* - Chen M, Chang C-H, Tao L, Lu C. Residential exposure to pesticide during childhood and childhood cancers: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2015;136(4):719-729. Accessed on July 18, 2017
Crocker 2011* - Crocker DD, Kinyota S, Dumitru GG, et al. Effectiveness of home-based, multi-trigger, multicomponent interventions with an environmental focus for reducing asthma morbidity: A community guide systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine (AJPM). 2011;41(2S1):S5-32. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Fabian 2014* - Fabian MP, Adamkiewicz G, Stout NK, Sandel M, Levy JI. A simulation model of building intervention impacts on indoor environmental quality, pediatric asthma, and costs. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2014;133(1):77-84. Accessed on July 18, 2017
Jacobs 2010* - Jacobs DE, Brown MJ, Baeder A, et al. A systematic review of housing interventions and health: Introduction, methods, and summary findings. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice (JPHMP). 2010;16(5):S5-10. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Jones 2015a* - Jones SE, Doroski B, Glick S. Association between state assistance on the topic of indoor air quality and school district-level policies that promote indoor air quality in schools. The Journal of School Nursing. 2015;31(6):422-429. Accessed on July 18, 2017
Kalmar 2014* - Kalmar E, Ivey SL, Bradman A, Leonard V, Alkon A. Implementing an integrated pest management (IPM) program in child care centers: A qualitative study. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 2014;29(3):245-254. Accessed on July 18, 2017
Krieger 2010 - Krieger J, Jacobs DE, Ashley PJ, et al. Housing interventions and control of asthma-related indoor biologic agents: A review of the evidence. National Institutes of Health Public Access (NIH). 2014;16(5):1-14. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Nalyanya 2014 - Nalyanya G, Gore JC, Linker HM, Schal C. German cockroach allergen levels in North Carolina schools: Comparison of integrated pest management and conventional cockroach control. Journal of Medical Entomology. 2009;46(3):420-427. Accessed on July 18, 2017
Rabito 2017* - Rabito FA, Carlson JC, He H, Werthmann D, Schal C. A single intervention for cockroach control reduces cockroach exposure and asthma morbidity in children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2017:1-6. Accessed on July 18, 2017
Sanborn 2007 - Sanborn M, Kerr KJ, Sanin LH, Cole DC, Bassil KL, Vakil C. Non-cancer health effects of pesticides. Canadian Family Physician (CFP). 2007;53:1712–1720. Accessed on July 12, 2017
Sandel 2010* - Sandel M, Baeder A, Bradman A, et al. Housing interventions and control of health-related chemical agents: A review of the evidence. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. 2010;16(5 Suppl):S24-33. Accessed on August 30, 2017

Citations - Implementation

Beyond Pesticides - Beyond Pesticides. State and local school pesticide policies. Accessed on July 18, 2017
US EPA-School IPM grants - US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). School integrated pest management (IPM) grants. Accessed on July 12, 2017
US GSA-IPM - US General Services Administration (US GSA). Integrated pest management (IPM). Accessed on July 12, 2017
US HUD-IPM - US Department of Housing and Urban Development (US HUD). Safe pest control. Integrated pest management (IPM). Accessed on July 12, 2017
WI DATCP-School IPM - Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP). Pesticides: School integrated pest management (IPM). Accessed on November 18, 2015

Page Last Updated

July 18, 2017

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