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Out of town bypasses

Health Factors: Community Safety Housing & Transit
Decision Makers: Community Development Professionals Local Government State Government
Evidence Rating: Some Evidence
Population Reach: 50-99% of WI's population
Impact on Disparities: No impact on disparities likely

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Description

Out of town bypasses are roads that avoid built-up areas such as towns, cities, or commercial/business districts. Typically designed for higher speed limits, bypasses are intended to allow travelers to continue at highway speeds and reduce through traffic congestion within towns and cities. Bypasses may incorporate more than one town, looping around rural communities (Cena 2011).

Expected Beneficial Outcomes

Reduced injuries
Increased pedestrian and cyclist safety
Improved quality of life
Improved sense of community
Reduced emissions

Evidence of Effectiveness

There is some evidence that out of town bypasses decrease traffic injuries and increase pedestrian and cyclist safety (Egan 2003, Cena 2011, Elvik 2001, Thomson 2008). Additional evidence is needed to confirm effects.

Out of town bypasses have been shown to decrease traffic injuries on both main roads through town and on bypass roads (Cena 2011, Elvik 2001, Thomson 2008). Out of town bypasses appear to reduce truck traffic on main roads through town (Mills 2011, Orr 2012), and, may increase cycling and cyclist safety when cycleways or bike paths are included (Orr 2012). Bypasses can also reduce noise levels, support community cohesion, and improve overall quality of life in towns (Ramis 2003), and reduce particulate matter pollutants near the bypassed road (Burr 2004).

Bypasses are often located in less populated areas, since changing traffic flow may increase air pollution (Thomson 2008) and noise levels, and decrease community cohesion near the bypass (Egan 2003, Thomson 2008). In some instances, out of town bypasses may shift crash locations, modestly reducing effects on overall crash rates (Elias 2011).

Implementation

United States

Bypass roads are found in urban, rural, and suburban areas throughout the US, although design and operational practices vary (US DOT-FHWA).

Wisconsin

There are bypasses around a number of Wisconsin cities; examples include Fort Atkinson, Fond du Lac, Whitewater, and Oconomowoc (WisDOT-US 151 bypass).

Citations - Description

Cena 2011 - Cena LG, Keren N, Li W, et al. A Bayesian assessment of the effect of highway bypasses in Iowa on crashes and crash rate. Journal of Safety Research. 2011;42(4):241–52. Accessed on June 1, 2017

Citations - Evidence

Burr 2004 - Burr ML, Karani G, Davies B, Holmes BA, Williams KL. Effects on respiratory health of a reduction in air pollution from vehicle exhaust emissions. Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 2004;61(3):212-8. Accessed on June 1, 2017
Cena 2011 - Cena LG, Keren N, Li W, et al. A Bayesian assessment of the effect of highway bypasses in Iowa on crashes and crash rate. Journal of Safety Research. 2011;42(4):241–52. Accessed on June 1, 2017
Egan 2003* - Egan M, Petticrew M, Ogilvie D, Hamilton V. New roads and human health: A systematic review. American Journal of Public Health. 2003;93(9):1463-71. Accessed on June 1, 2017
Elias 2011* - Elias W, Shiftan Y. The safety impact of land use changes resulting from bypass road constructions. Journal of Transport Geography. 2011;19(6):1120–9. Accessed on June 1, 2017
Elvik 2001* - Elvik R, Amundsen FH, Hofset F. Road safety effects of bypasses. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2001;1758(01):13–20. Accessed on June 1, 2017
Mills 2011* - Mills J, Fricker J. Integrated analysis of economic impacts of bypasses on communities: Panel data analysis and case study interviews. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2011;2242:114-121. Accessed on June 8, 2017
Orr 2012* - Orr J. The Ruby Bay bypass – The project that pushed the boundaries. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer. 2012;165(4):215-218. Accessed on June 8, 2017
Ramis 2003* - Ramis J, Alba J, Garcia D, Herna F. Noise effects of reducing traffic flow through a Spanish city. Applied Acoustics. 2003;64(3):343-64. Accessed on June 1, 2017
Thomson 2008 - Thomson H, Jepson R, Hurley F, Douglas M. Assessing the unintended health impacts of road transport policies and interventions: Translating research evidence for use in policy and practice. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:339. Accessed on June 1, 2017

Citations - Implementation

US DOT-FHWA - US Department of Transportation (US DOT). Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Accessed on June 1, 2017
WisDOT-US 151 bypass - Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT). US 151 bypass improvements: Project overview in Fond du Lac. Accessed on June 1, 2017

Page Last Updated

June 8, 2017

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