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Diet & Exercise

Good nutrition is essential for health beginning in the prenatal period and extending throughout life. Both the quantity and quality of consumption can impact health. Insufficient nutrition can harm growth and development while excessive consumption can lead to overweight, obesity, and numerous health complications. Along with poor diet, inadequate physical activity is a major cause of obesity, premature death, and a range of chronic conditions. A number of other conditions and diseases are associated with unhealthy diets and insufficient physical activity.

Reviewed diet & exercise policies and programs are listed below. Click on column headings to sort by approach, policy or program, evidence rating, or decision maker. Click on Policy or Program name for more information.

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Approach Index
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Factor
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Approach
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Policy or Program
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Evidence Rating
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Decision Maker
Community Development Professionals
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Community Members
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Educators
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Employers & Businesses
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Government Officials
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Grantmakers
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Healthcare Professionals & Advocates
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Nonprofit Leaders
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Public Health Professionals & Advocates
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1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Places for physical activity
Scientifically Supported
x   x x x     x  
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Safe Routes to Schools
Scientifically Supported
x   x   x x   x  
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Mixed-use development
Scientifically Supported
x       x        
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Streetscape design
Scientifically Supported
x       x        
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Zoning regulations for land use policy
Scientifically Supported
x       x        
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Walking school buses
Scientifically Supported
  x x         x  
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Point-of-decision prompts for physical activity
Scientifically Supported
    x x x   x x x
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Active recess
Scientifically Supported
    x   x     x  
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Physically active classrooms
Scientifically Supported
    x   x        
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Community fitness programs
Scientifically Supported
      x       x  
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Activity programs for older adults
Scientifically Supported
        x   x x  
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Green space & parks
Some Evidence
x       x x   x  
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Bike & pedestrian master plans
Some Evidence
x       x        
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Joint use agreements
Some Evidence
    x x x     x  
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Extracurricular activities for physical activity
Some Evidence
    x   x     x  
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Homework or extra credit for PE class
Some Evidence
    x   x        
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Multi-component workplace supports for active commuting
Some Evidence
      x          
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Open Streets
Expert Opinion
x x   x x x   x x
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Open gym time
Expert Opinion
    x   x        
1 2 1 Diet & Exercise Create opportunities for active living Recreational sports leagues for adults
Expert Opinion
              x  
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options School breakfast programs
Scientifically Supported
    x   x x      
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options School fruit & vegetable gardens
Scientifically Supported
    x   x x      
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Farmers' markets/stands
Some Evidence
x x   x x x      
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Community gardens
Some Evidence
x x     x x   x  
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Fruit & vegetable taste testing
Some Evidence
  x x x x   x x x
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Healthy food initiatives in food banks
Some Evidence
  x x x x     x x
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Farm to school programs
Some Evidence
    x x x x      
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Healthy vending machine options
Some Evidence
    x x x   x x  
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Water availability & promotion interventions
Some Evidence
    x x x   x   x
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Healthy school lunch initiatives
Some Evidence
    x   x x   x  
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Healthy food in convenience stores
Some Evidence
      x x     x  
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options WIC & Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Programs
Some Evidence
        x        
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Urban agriculture
Expert Opinion
x x   x x x   x  
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Zoning regulations for chickens and bees
Expert Opinion
x x   x x     x  
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options New grocery stores in underserved areas
Expert Opinion
x     x x x   x  
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Zoning regulations for fast food
Expert Opinion
x       x        
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Community supported agriculture (CSA)
Expert Opinion
  x   x x   x x  
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Healthy foods at catered events
Expert Opinion
  x   x x     x x
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Fruit & vegetable gleaning initiatives
Expert Opinion
  x   x x     x  
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Food buying clubs & co-ops
Expert Opinion
  x   x       x  
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Mobile markets
Expert Opinion
    x x x x   x  
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Community kitchens for food processing
Expert Opinion
      x x x   x  
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Electronic Benefit Transfer payment at farmers' markets
Expert Opinion
      x x x      
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Food hubs
Expert Opinion
      x x     x  
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Online grocery stores
Insufficient Evidence
  x   x          
1 2 2 Diet & Exercise Increase access to healthy food options Community kitchens for nutrition education
Insufficient Evidence
      x x     x  
1 2 3 Diet & Exercise Promote broad approaches to increasing physical activity Screen time interventions for children
Scientifically Supported
  x x   x     x  
1 2 3 Diet & Exercise Promote broad approaches to increasing physical activity Community-based social support for physical activity
Scientifically Supported
  x   x     x x  
1 2 3 Diet & Exercise Promote broad approaches to increasing physical activity Individually-adapted physical activity programs
Scientifically Supported
  x         x x x
1 2 3 Diet & Exercise Promote broad approaches to increasing physical activity Nutrition and physical activity interventions in preschool & child care
Scientifically Supported
    x x x       x
1 2 3 Diet & Exercise Promote broad approaches to increasing physical activity Multi-component obesity prevention interventions
Scientifically Supported
    x       x x x
1 2 3 Diet & Exercise Promote broad approaches to increasing physical activity Community-wide physical activity campaigns
Some Evidence
    x x x   x x x
1 2 3 Diet & Exercise Promote broad approaches to increasing physical activity Family-based social support for physical activity
Expert Opinion
  x x         x  
1 2 3 Diet & Exercise Promote broad approaches to increasing physical activity Community weight loss challenges
Expert Opinion
      x       x  
1 2 4 Diet & Exercise Promote healthy eating School nutrition standards
Scientifically Supported
    x   x        
1 2 4 Diet & Exercise Promote healthy eating Breastfeeding promotion programs
Scientifically Supported
      x x   x x x
1 2 4 Diet & Exercise Promote healthy eating Point-of-purchase prompts for healthy foods
Some Evidence
    x x       x x
1 2 4 Diet & Exercise Promote healthy eating School-based nutrition education programs
Some Evidence
    x   x        
1 2 4 Diet & Exercise Promote healthy eating Restaurant nutrition labeling
Some Evidence
      x x       x
1 2 4 Diet & Exercise Promote healthy eating Nutrition prescriptions
Expert Opinion
  x         x   x
1 2 5 Diet & Exercise Provide physical activity information & education Exercise prescriptions
Scientifically Supported
  x         x   x
1 2 5 Diet & Exercise Provide physical activity information & education Worksite obesity prevention interventions
Scientifically Supported
    x x x   x x x
1 2 5 Diet & Exercise Provide physical activity information & education School-based physical education
Scientifically Supported
    x   x x      
1 2 5 Diet & Exercise Provide physical activity information & education Multi-component school-based obesity prevention interventions
Scientifically Supported
    x           x
1 2 5 Diet & Exercise Provide physical activity information & education Financial rewards for employee healthy behavior
Some Evidence
      x x   x    
1 2 5 Diet & Exercise Provide physical activity information & education College-based obesity prevention interventions
Insufficient Evidence
    x           x
1 2 5 Diet & Exercise Provide physical activity information & education Mass media campaigns for physical activity
Insufficient Evidence
        x x   x x
1 2 6 Diet & Exercise Reduce access to unhealthy foods Competitive pricing for healthy foods
Scientifically Supported
    x x x        
1 2 6 Diet & Exercise Reduce access to unhealthy foods Child-focused advertising restrictions for unhealthy foods & beverages
Some Evidence
  x x   x       x
1 2 6 Diet & Exercise Reduce access to unhealthy foods School food & beverage restrictions
Some Evidence
    x   x        
1 2 6 Diet & Exercise Reduce access to unhealthy foods Sugar sweetened beverage taxes
Some Evidence
        x        
1 2 6 Diet & Exercise Reduce access to unhealthy foods Unhealthy snack taxes
Some Evidence
        x        
1 2 6 Diet & Exercise Reduce access to unhealthy foods School fundraiser restrictions
Expert Opinion
    x   x